Gullies on Mars sculpted by dry ice rather than liquid water — ScienceDaily

Mars’s gullies may be formed by dry ice processes rather than flowing liquid water, as previously thought. Scientists show that, during late winter and spring, underneath the seasonal CO2 ice layer heated by the sun, intense gas fluxes can destabilize the regolith material and induce gas-lubricated debris flows which look like water-sculpted gullies on Earth. Since 2000, the cameras in orbit around Mars have transmitted numerous images of small valleys cut into slopes, similar in shape to gullies formed by flowing water on Earth. The gullies seem less than a few million years old-and sometimes less than a few years old.

Source: Gullies on Mars sculpted by dry ice rather than liquid water — ScienceDaily

Incredible Photographs of a Doomed 1914 Antarctic Expedition | Mental Floss UK

In October 1914, 28 explorers set out from Buenos Aires to make the first transcontinental trek across Antarctica. By January, their ship, the Endurance, was mired in ice, unable to reach the continent, and the next November, it sank. Led by British explorer Ernest Shackleton, the crew lived on ice floes, eventually setting out on lifeboats for solid ground in what would become one of the great tales of human survival.

Source: Incredible Photographs of a Doomed 1914 Antarctic Expedition | Mental Floss UK

This Park Spends Part of the Year Submerged in Emerald Waters | Mental Floss UK

A changing of the seasons usually means that colors turn, precipitation takes new form, and temperatures rise or fall. When it comes to Grüner See in Austria, the difference is more like 30 feet of water.At the foothills of the snow-peaked Hochschwab mountains in an Austrian village called Tragöß, Grüner See (meaning “Green Lake”) spends most of the year with a depth of less than 10 feet. A park containing benches, foot bridges, and paths surrounds it. But when spring arrives, snowmelt from the neighboring mountains starts to fill the basin. Walking paths frequented by hikers disappear, benches become submerged, and the lake expands to around 43,055 square feet. With clean, clear water almost 40 feet deep, the lake takes on a new identity and transforms into a destination for scuba divers who are willing to brave the icy waters.

Source: This Park Spends Part of the Year Submerged in Emerald Waters | Mental Floss UK

WWI U-Boat Wreck Found By Wind Farm Divers

Divers working on a wind farm project have discovered the wreck of a German U-boat sunk more than 100 years ago.SM U-31 – which disappeared after leaving Germany on 13 January 1915 – was found 56 miles off the coast of East Anglia.

Video footage shows the 57.6m-long vessel lying 30m down in the North Sea, with damage to its bow and stern.The wreck was discovered by Scottish Power Renewables and its partner Vattenfall in 2012, but has only now been officially identified.

Source: WWI U-Boat Wreck Found By Wind Farm Divers

Canada’s “Other” Problem: Record High Household Debt

Great piece about household debt and the rate decision from zerohedge.

It is also interesting to see in the graph below, the next market with a similar ratio, UK.

“According to a new report from the Parliamentary Budget Officer (PBO) the household debt-to-income ratio is now a whopping 171% which means, for anyone who is confused, “that for every $100 in disposable income, households had debt obligations of $171.”

That’s the highest level in a quarter century and it means that when it comes to household leverage, no other advanced economy does it like Canada:

Source: Canada’s “Other” Problem: Record High Household Debt

Annual Mince Pie Tasting 2015 : Mr Kipling

Okay it is now post Dec 1st, and the official start of mince pie season. Yes we have a month of gorging on these little treats, pretending that you have not eaten as many as you have and enjoying everyone.

Each year I havea mission to try them all and decide which is best.

Mr Kipling: 6 Deep filled mince pies.
Price: £1
Score: 6/10
Time taken to scoff the lot: 1 day
Comments: A standard, nicely presented with the holly on the pie crust. Sweet, not too spicy. May have eaten quickly as I missed mince pies so much!

The Maths of Shuffling Cards | Mental Floss UK

How much shuffling does it take to randomise a deck of cards? And how “random” does the deck become, anyway? How likely are you to guess the next card to come out of a shuffled deck? All these questions and more are answered in this fascinating nine-minute video about the maths behind shuffling cards. I was particularly interested to learn about the relative merits of different methods of shuffling—it makes a mathematical difference how you shuffle the cards and how many times you shuffle them. Clearly, I need some more practice shuffling cards.

Source: The Maths of Shuffling Cards | Mental Floss UK